الأحد، 16 مارس، 2014

الرئيسية المواصفات القياسية المصرية لزيوت الطعام

المواصفات القياسية المصرية لزيوت الطعام

السلام عليكم  جميعا زيت-الصويا المستورد

معرفة المواصفات وشروطها امر جيد بالنسبة الي كل من اراد الاستيراد او التصدير وذلك لتجنب اي اضرار قد تلحق به جراء مخالفة الموافات القياسية سؤاء في بلد المصدر او المستورد .

مرفق هنا المواصفات القياسية الدولية تحت رقم codex210_1999 وتقريبا تتطابق مع المواصفة القاياسية المصرية التي صدرت في 1999 والتعديل التي تم عليها في عام 2005 .

CODEX Stan 210 Page 1 of 13
CODEX STANDARD FOR NAMED VEGETABLE OILS
CODEX-STAN 210 ( Amended 2003, 2005)
The Appendix to this Standard is intended for voluntary application by commercial partners and not for application by governments.
1. SCOPE
This Standard applies to the vegetable oils described in Section 2.1 presented in a state for human consumption.
2. DESCRIPTION
2.1 Product definitions
(Note: synonyms are in brackets immediately following the name of the oil)
2.1.1 Arachis oil (peanut oil; groundnut oil) is derived from groundnuts (seeds of Arachis hypogaea L.).
2.1.2 Babassu oil is derived from the kernel of the fruit of several varieties of the palm Orbignya spp.
2.1.3 Coconut oil is derived from the kernel of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).
2.1.4 Cottonseed oil is derived from the seeds of various cultivated species of Gossypium spp.
2.1.5 Grapeseed oil is derived from the seeds of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.).
2.1.6 Maize oil (corn oil) is derived from maize germ (the embryos of Zea mays L.).
2.1.7 Mustardseed oil is derived from the seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. or Brassica hirta Moench), brown and yellow mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czernajew and Cossen) and of black mustard (Brassica nigra (L.) Koch).
2.1.8 Palm kernel oil is derived from the kernel of the fruit of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).
2.1.9 Palm oil is derived from the fleshy mesocarp of the fruit of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).
2.1.10 Palm olein is the liquid fraction derived from the fractionation of palm oil (described above).
2.1.11 Palm stearin is the high-melting fraction derived from the fractionation of palm oil (described above).
2.1.12 Palm superolein is a liquid fraction derived from palm oil (described above) produced through a specially controlled crystallization process to achieve an iodine value of 60 or higher.
2.1.13 Rapeseed oil (turnip rape oil; colza oil; ravison oil; sarson oil: toria oil) is produced from seeds of Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., Brassica juncea L. and Brassica tournefortii Gouan species.
2.1.14 Rapeseed oil - low erucic acid (low erucic acid turnip rape oil; low erucic acid colza oil; canola oil) is produced from low erucic acid oil-bearing seeds of varieties derived from the Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L. and Brassica juncea L., species.
2.1.15 Safflowerseed oil (safflower oil; carthamus oil; kurdee oil) is derived from safflower seeds (seeds of Carthamus tinctorious L.).
2.1.16 Safflowerseed oil - high oleic acid (high oleic acid safflower oil; high oleic acid carthamus oil; high oleic acid kurdee oil) is produced from high oleic acid oil-bearing seeds of varieties derived from Carthamus tinctorious L.
2.1.17 Sesameseed oil (sesame oil; gingelly oil; benne oil; ben oil; till oil; tillie oil) is derived from sesame seeds (seeds of Sesamum indicum L.).
CODEX Stan 210 Page 2 of 13
2.1.18 Soya bean oil (soybean oil) is derived from soya beans (seeds of Glycine max (L.) Merr.).
2.1.19 Sunflowerseed oil (sunflower oil) is derived from sunflower seeds (seeds of Helianthus annuus L.).
2.1.20 Sunflowerseed oil - high oleic acid (high oleic acid sunflower oil) is produced from high oleic acid oil-bearing seeds of varieties derived from sunflower seeds (seeds of Helianthus annuus L.).
2.1.21 Sunflowerseed oil - mid oleic acid (mid-oleic acid sunflower oil) is produced from mid-oleic acid oil-bearing sunflower seeds (seeds of Helianthus annuus L.).
2.2 Other definitions
2.2.1 Edible vegetable oils are foodstuffs which are composed primarily of glycerides of fatty acids being obtained only from vegetable sources. They may contain small amounts of other lipids such as phosphatides, of unsaponifiable constituents and of free fatty acids naturally present in the fat or oil.
2.2.2 Virgin oils are obtained, without altering the nature of the oil, by mechanical procedures, e.g. expelling or pressing, and the application of heat only. They may have been purified by washing with water, settling, filtering and centrifuging only.
2.2.3 Cold pressed oils are obtained, without altering the oil, by mechanical procedures only, e.g. expelling or pressing, without the application of heat. They may have been purified by washing with water, settling, filtering and centrifuging only.
3. ESSENTIAL COMPOSITION AND QUALITY FACTORS
3.1 GLC ranges of fatty acid composition (expressed as percentages)
Samples falling within the appropriate ranges specified in Table 1 are in compliance with this Standard. Supplementary criteria, for example national geographical and/or climatic variations, may be considered, as necessary, to confirm that a sample is in compliance with the Standard.
3.1.1 Low-erucic acid rapeseed oil must not contain more than 2% erucic acid (as % of total fatty acids).
3.1.2 High oleic acid safflower oil must contain not less than 70% oleic acid (as a % of total fatty acids).
3.1.3 High oleic acid sunflower oil must contain not less than 75% oleic acid (as % of total fatty acids).
3.3 Slip point
Palm olein
not more than 24°C
Palm stearin
not less than 44°C
Palm superolein
not more than 19.5°C
4. FOOD ADDITIVES
4.1 No food additives are permitted in virgin or cold pressed oils.
4.2 Flavours
Natural flavours and their identical synthetic equivalents, and other synthetic flavours, except those which are known to represent a toxic hazard.
CODEX Stan 210 Page 3 of 13
4.3 Antioxidants
Maximum Level
304
Ascorbyl palmitate
)
500 mg/kg
305
Ascorbyl stearate
)
individually or in combination
306
Mixed tocopherols concentrate
GMP
307
Alpha-tocopherol
GMP
308
Synthetic gamma-tocopherol
GMP
309
Synthetic delta-tocopherol
GMP
310
Propyl gallate
100 mg/kg
319
Tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ)
120 mg/kg
320
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
175 mg/kg
321
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)
75 mg/kg
Any combination of gallates, BHA and BHT and/or TBHQ
200 mg/kg but limits above not to be exceeded
389
Dilauryl thiodipropionate
200 mg/kg
4.4 Antioxidant synergists
330
Citric acid
GMP
331
Sodium citrates
GMP
384
Isopropyl citrates
)
100 mg/kg individually or in combination
Monoglyceride citrate
)
4.5 Anti-foaming agents (oils for deepfrying)
900a
Polydimethylsiloxane
10 mg/kg
5. CONTAMINANTS
5.1 Heavy metals
The products covered by the provisions of this Standard shall comply with maximum limits being established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission but in the meantime the following limits will apply:
Maximum permissible concentration
Lead (Pb)
0.1 mg/kg
Arsenic (As)
0.1 mg/kg
5.2 Pesticide residues
The products covered by the provisions of this Standard shall comply with those maximum residue limits established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for these commodities.
6. HYGIENE
6.1 It is recommended that the products covered by the provisions of this Standard be prepared and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of the Recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 3-1997), and other relevant Codex texts such as Codes of Hygienic Practice and Codes of Practice.
6.2 The products should comply with any microbiological criteria established in accordance with the Principles for the Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods (CAC/GL 21-1997).
CODEX Stan 210 Page 4 of 13
7. LABELLING
7.1 Name of the food
The product shall be labelled in accordance with the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985, Rev. 1-1991; Codex Alimentarius, Volume 1A). The name of the oil shall conform to the descriptions given in Section 2 of this Standard.
Where more than one name is given for a product in Section 2.1, the labelling of that product must include one of those names acceptable in the country of use.
7.2 Labelling of non-retail containers
Information on the above labelling requirements shall be given either on the container or in accompanying documents, except that the name of the food, lot identification and the name and address of the manufacturer or packer shall appear on the container.
However, lot identification and the name and address of the manufacturer or packer may be replaced by an identification mark, provided that such a mark is clearly identifiable with the accompanying documents.
8. METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND SAMPLING
8.1 Determination of GLC ranges of fatty acid composition
According to ISO 5508: 1990 and 5509: 2000; or AOCS Ce 2-66 (97), Ce 1e-91 (01) or Ce 1f-96 (02).
8.2 Determination of slip point
According to ISO 6321: 2002 for all oils; AOCS Cc 3b-92 (02) for all oils except for palm oils; AOCS Cc 3-25 (97) for palm oils only.
8.3 Determination of arsenic
According to AOAC 952.13; AOAC 942.17; or AOAC 986.15.
8.4 Determination of lead
According to; AOAC 994.02; or ISO 12193: 2004; or AOCS Ca 18c-91 (03).
Table 1: Fatty acid composition of vegetable oils as determined by gas liquid chromatography from authentic samples 1 (expressed as percentage of total fatty acids) (see Section 3.1 of the Standard)
Fatty acid
Arachis oil
Babassu oil
Coconut oil
Cottonseed oil
Grapeseed oil
Maize oil
Mustardseed oil
Palm oil
Palm kernel oil
Palm olein2
Palm stearin
C6:0
ND
ND
ND-0.7
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND-0.8
ND
ND
C8:0
ND
2.6-7.3
4.6-10.0
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.4-6.2
ND
ND
C10:0
ND
1.2-7.6
5.0-8.0
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.6-5.0
ND
ND
C12:0
ND-0.1
40.0-55.0
45.1 53.2
ND-0.2
ND
ND-0.3
ND
ND-0.5
45.0-55.0
0.1-0.5
0.1-0.5
C14:0
ND-0.1
11.0-27.0
16.8-21.0
0.6-1.0
ND-0.3
ND-0.3
ND-1.0
0.5-2.0
14.0-18.0
0.5-1.5
1.0-2.0
C16:0
8.0-14.0
5.2-11.0
7.5-10.2
21.4-26.4
5.5-11.0
8.6-16.5
0.5-4.5
39.3-47.5
6.5-10.0
38.0-43.5
48.0-74.0
C16:1
ND-0.2
ND
ND
ND-1.2
ND-1.2
ND-0.5
ND-0.5
ND-0.6
ND-0.2
ND-0.6
ND-0.2
C17:0
ND-0.1
ND
ND
ND-0.1
ND-0.2
ND-0.1
ND
ND-0.2
ND
ND-0.2
ND-0.2
C17:1
ND-0.1
ND
ND
ND-0.1
ND-0.1
ND-0.1
ND
ND
ND
ND-0.1
ND-0.1
C18:0
1.0-4.5
1.8-7.4
2.0-4.0
2.1-3.3
3.0-6.5
ND-3.3
0.5-2.0
3.5-6.0
1.0-3.0
3.5-.5.0
3.9-6.0
C18:1
35.0-69
9.0-20.0
5.0-10.0
14.7-21.7
12.0-28.0
20.0-42.2
8.0-23.0
36.0-44.0
12.0-19.0
39.8-46.0
15.5-36.0
C18:2
12.0-43.0
1.4-6.6
1.0-2.5
46.7-58.2
58.0-78.0
34.0-65.6
10.0-24.0
9.0-12.0
1.0-3.5
10.0-13.5
3.0-10.0
C18:3
ND-0.3
ND
ND-0.2
ND-0.4
ND-1.0
ND-2.0
6.0-18.0
ND-0.5
ND-0.2
ND-0.6
ND-0.5
C20:0
1.0-2.0
ND
ND-0.2
0.2-0.5
ND-1.0
0.3-1.0
ND-1.5
ND-1.0
ND-0.2
ND-0.6
ND-1.0
C20:1
0.7-1.7
ND
ND-0.2
ND-0.1
ND-0.3
0.2-0.6
5.0-13.0
ND-0.4
ND-0.2
ND-0.4
ND-0.4
C20:2
ND
ND
ND
ND-0.1
ND
ND-0.1
ND-1.0
ND
ND
ND
ND
C22:0
1.5-4.5
ND
ND
ND-0.6
ND-0.5
ND-0.5
0.2-2.5
ND-0.2
ND-0.2
ND-0.2
ND-0.2
C22:1
ND-0.3
ND
ND
ND-0.3
ND-0.3
ND-0.3
22.0-50.0
ND
ND
ND
ND
C22:2
ND
ND
ND
ND-0.1
ND
ND
ND-1.0
ND
ND
ND
ND
C24:0
0.5-2.5
ND
ND
ND-0.1
ND-0.4
ND-0.5
ND-0.5
ND
ND
ND
ND
C24:1
ND-0.3
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.5-2.5
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND - non detectable, defined as 0.05%
1 Data taken from species as listed in Section 2.
2 Fractionated product from palm oil.
Table 1: Fatty acid composition of vegetable oils as determined by gas liquid chromatography from authentic samples 1 (expressed as percentage of total fatty acids) (see Section 3.1 of the Standard) (continued)
Fatty acid
Palm superolein2
Rapeseed oil
Rapeseed oil (low erucic acid)
Safflowerseed oil
Safflowerseed oil (high oleic acid)
Sesameseed oil
Soyabean oil
Sunflowerseed oil
Sunflowerseed oil (high oleic acid)
Sunflowerseed oil (mid- oleic acid)
C6:0
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
C8:0
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
C10:0
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
C12:0
0.1-0.5
ND
ND
ND
ND-0.2
ND
ND-0.1
ND-0.1
ND
ND
C14:0
0.5-1.5
ND-0.2
ND-0.2
ND-0.2
ND-0.2
ND-0.1
ND-0.2
ND-0.2
ND-0.1
ND-1
C16:0
30.0-39.0
1.5-6.0
2.5-7.0
5.3-8.0
3.6-6.0
7.9-12.0
8.0-13.5
5.0-7.6
2.6-5.0
4.0-5.5
C16:1
ND-0.5
ND-3.0
ND-0.6
ND-0.2
ND-0.2
ND- 0.2
ND-0.2
ND-0.3
ND-0.1
ND-0.05
C17:0
ND-0.1
ND-0.1
ND-0.3
ND-0.1
ND-0.1
ND-0.2
ND-0.1
ND-0.2
ND-0.1
ND-0.05
C17:1
ND
ND-0.1
ND-0.3
ND-0.1
ND-0.1
ND-0.1
ND-0.1
ND-0.1
ND-0.1
ND-0.06
C18:0
2.8-4.5
0.5-3.1
0.8-3.0
1.9-2.9
1.5-2.4
4.5-6.7
2.0-5.4
2.7-6.5
2.9-6.2
2.1-5.0
C18:1
43.0-49.5
8.0-60.0
51.0-70.0
8.4-21.3
70.0-83.7
34.4-45.5
17-30
14.0-39.4
75-90.7
43.1-71.8
C18:2
10.5-15.0
11.0-23.0
15.0-30.0
67.8-83.2
9.0-19.9
36.9-47.9
48.0 -59.0
48.3-74.0
2.1-17
18.7-45.3
C18:3
0.2-1.0
5.0-13.0
5.0-14.0
ND-0.1
ND-1.2
0.2-1.0
4.5-11.0
ND-0.3
ND-0.3
ND-0.5
C20:0
ND-0.4
ND-3.0
0.2-1.2
0.2- 0.4
0.3-0.6
0.3-0.7
0.1-0.6
0.1-0.5
0.2-0.5
0.2-0.4
C20:1
ND-0.2
3.0-15.0
0.1-4.3
0.1- 0.3
0.1-0.5
ND-0.3
ND-0.5
ND-0.3
0.1-0.5
0.2-0.3
C20:2
ND
ND-1.0
ND-0.1
ND
ND
ND
ND-0.1
ND
ND
ND
C22:0
ND-0.2
ND-2.0
ND-0.6
ND-1.0
ND-0.4
NN-1.1
ND-0.7
0.3-1.5
0.5-1.6
0.6-1.1
C22:1
ND
> 2.0-60.0
ND-2.0
ND-1.8
ND-0.3
ND
ND-0.3
ND-0.3
ND-0.3
ND
C22:2
ND
ND-2.0
ND-0.1
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND-0.3
ND
ND-0.09
C24: 0
ND
ND-2.0
ND-0.3
ND-0.2
ND-0.3
ND-0.3
ND-0.5
ND-0.5
ND-0.5
0.3-0.4
C24:1
ND
ND-3.0
ND-0.4
ND-0.2
ND-0.3
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND - non detectable, defined as ≤ 0.05%
1 Data taken from species as listed in Section 2.
2 Fractionated product from palm oil.
CODEX Stan 210 Page 7 of 13
APPENDIX
OTHER QUALITY AND COMPOSITION FACTORS
This text is intended for voluntary application by commercial partners and not for application by governments.
1. QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS
1.1 The colour, odour and taste of each product shall be characteristic of the designated product. It shall be free from foreign and rancid odour and taste.
Maximum level
1.2 Matter volatile at 105°C
0.2 % m/m
1.3 Insoluble impurities
0.05 % m/m
1.4 Soap content
0.005 % m/m
1.5 Iron (Fe):
Refined oils
1.5 mg/kg
Virgin oils
5.0 mg/kg
1.6 Copper (Cu)
Refined oils
0.1 mg/kg
Virgin oils
0.4 mg/kg
1.7 Acid value
Refined oils
0.6 mg KOH/g Oil
Cold pressed and virgin oils
4.0 mg KOH/g Oil
Virgin palm oils
10.0 mg KOH/g Oil
1.8 Peroxide value:
Refined oils
up to 10 milliequivalents of active oxygen/kg oil
Cold pressed and virgin oils
up to 15 milliequivalents of active oxygen/kg oil
2. COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS
2.1 The arachidic and higher fatty acid content of arachis oil should not exceed 48g/kg.
2.2 The Reichert values for coconut, palm kernel and babassu oils should be in the ranges 6-8.5, 4-7 and 4.5-6.5, respectively.
2.3 The Polenske values for coconut, palm kernel and babassu oils should be in the ranges 13-18, 8-12 and 8-10, respectively.
2.4 The Halphen test for cottonseed oil should be positive.
2.5 The erythrodiol content of grapeseed oil should be more than 2% of the total sterols.
2.6 The total carotenoids (as beta-carotene) for unbleached palm oil, unbleached palm olein and unbleached palm stearin should be in the range 500-2000, 550-2500 and 300-1500 mg/kg, respectively.
2.7 The Crismer value for low erucic acid rapeseed oil should be in the range 67-70.
CODEX Stan 210 Page 8 of 13
2.8 The concentration of brassicasterol in low erucic acid rapeseed oil should be greater than 5% of total sterols.
2.9 The Baudouin test should be positive for sesameseed oil.
3. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Chemical and Physical Characteristics are given in Table 2.
4. IDENTITY CHARACTERISTICS
4.1 Levels of desmethylsterols in vegetable oils as a percentage of total sterols are given in Table 3.
4.2 Levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols in vegetable oils are given in Table 4.
5. METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND SAMPLING
5.1 Determination of moisture and volatile matter at 105°C
According to ISO 662: 1998.
5.2 Determination of insoluble impurities
According to ISO 663: 2000.
5.3 Determination of soap content
According to BS 684 Section 2.5; or AOCS Cc 17-95 (97).
5.4 Determination of copper and iron
According to ISO 8294: 1994; or AOAC 990.05; or AOCS Ca 18b-91 (03)
5.5 Determination of relative density
According to IUPAC 2.101, with the appropriate conversion factor.
5.6 Determination of apparent density
According to ISO 6883: 2000, with the appropriate conversion factor; or AOCS Cc 10c-95 (02)
5.7 Determination of refractive index
According to ISO 6320: 2000; or AOCS Cc 7-25 (02)
5.8 Determination of saponification value (SV)
According to ISO 3657: 2002; or AOCS Cd 3-25 (03)
CODEX Stan 210 Page 9 of 13
5.9 Determination of iodine value (IV)
Wijs - ISO 3961: 1996; or AOAC 993.20; or AOCS Cd 1d-1992 (97); or NMKL 39(2003)
The method to be used for specific named vegetable oils is stipulated in the Standard
5.10 Determination of unsaponifiable matter
According to ISO 3596: 2000; or ISO 18609: 2000; or AOCS Ca 6b-53 (01)
5.11 Determination of peroxide value (PV)
According to AOCS Cd 8b-90 (03); or ISO 3960: 2001
5.12 Determination of total carotenoids
According to BS 684 Section 2.20.
5.13 Determination of acidity
According to ISO 660: 1996, amended 2003; or AOCS Cd 3d-63 (03)
5.14 Determination of sterol content
According to ISO 12228: 1999; or AOCS Ch 6-91 (97)
5.15 Determination of tocopherol content
According to ISO 9936: 1997; or AOCS Ce 8-89 (97)
5.16 Halphen test
According to AOCS Cb 1-25 (97).
5.17 Crismer value
According to AOCS Cb 4-35 (97) and AOCS Ca 5a-40 (97).
5.18 Baudouin test (modified Villavecchia test or sesameseed oil test)
According to AOCS Cb 2-40 (97).
5.19 Reichert value and Polenske value
According to AOCS Cd 5-40 (97)
Table 2: Chemical and physical characteristics of crude vegetable oils (see Appendix of the Standard)
Arachis oil
Babassu oil
Coconut oil
Cottonseed oil
Grapeseed oil
Maize oil
Mustardseed oil
Palm oil
Palm kernel
Palm olein
Relative density
(xºC/water at 20ºC)
0.912-0.920
x=20ºC
0.914-0.917
x=25ºC
0.908-0.921
x=40ºC
0.918-0.926
x=20ºC
0.920-0.926
x=20ºC
0.917-0.925
x=20ºC
0.910-0.921
x=20ºC
0.891-0.899
x=50ºC
0.899-0.914
x=40ºC
0.899-0.920
x=40ºC
Apparent density
(g/ml)
0.889-0.895
(50ºC)
0896-0.898
at 40ºC
Refractive index
(ND 40ºC)
1.460-1.465
1.448-1.451
1.448-1.450
1.458-1.466
1.467-1.477
1.465-1.468
1.461-1.469
1.454- 1.456
at 50ºC
1.448-1.452
1.458-1.460
Saponification value
(mg KOH/g oil)
187-196
245-256
248-265
189-198
188-194
187-195
168-184
190-209
230-254
194-202
Iodine value
86-107
10-18
6.3-10.6
100-123
128-150
103-135
92-125
50.0-55.0
14.1-21.0
≥ 56
Unsaponifiable matter
(g/kg)
≤ 10
≤ 12
≤ 15
≤ 15
≤ 20
≤ 28
≤ 15
≤ 12
≤ 10
≤ 13
Stable carbon isotope ratio *
-13.71to-16.36
* See the following publications:
Woodbury SP, Evershed RP and Rossell JB (1998). Purity assessments of major vegetable oils based on gamma 13C values of individual fatty acids. JAOCS, 75 (3), 371-379.
Woodbury SP, Evershed RP and Rossell JB (1998). Gamma 13C analysis of vegetable oil, fatty acid components, determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry, after saponification or regiospecific hydrolysis. Journal of Chromatography A, 805, 249-257.
Woodbury SP, Evershed RP, Rossell JB, Griffith R and Farnell P (1995). Detection of vegetable oil adulteration using gas chromatography combustion / isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry 67 (15), 2685-2690.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1996). Authenticity of single seed vegetable oils. Working Party on Food Authenticity, MAFF, UK.
2 Fractionated product from palm oil.
Table 2: Chemical and physical characteristics of crude vegetable oils (see Appendix of the Standard) (continued)
Palmstearin
Palm superolein
Rapeseed oil
Rapeseed oil (low erucic acid)
Safflowerseed oil
Safflowerseed oil (high oleic acid)
Sesameseed oil
Soyabean oil
Sunflowerseed oil
Sunflowerseed oil (high oleic acid)
Sunflowerseed oil (mid-oleic acid)
Relative density
(xº C/water at 20ºC)
0.881-0.891
x=60ºC
0.900-0.925
x=40ºC
0.910-0.920
x=20ºC
0.914-0.920
x=20ºC
0.922-0.927
x=20ºC
0.913-0.919
x=20oC;
0.910-0.916
x=25oC
0.915- 0.924
x=20ºC
0.919-0.925
x=20ºC
0.918-0.923
x=20ºC
0.909-0.915
x=25oC
0.914-0.916
x=20ºC
Apparent density
(g/ml)
0.881-0.885
at 60ºC
0.897-0.920
0.912-0.914 at20°C
Refractive index
(ND 40ºC)
1.447-1.452
at 60ºC
1.463-1.465
1.465-1.469
1.465-1.467
1.467-1.470
1.460-1.464
at 40oC;
1.466-1.470
at 25oC
1.465-1.469
1.466-1.470
1.461- 1.468
1.467- 1.471
at 25oC
1.461- 1.471
at 25ºC
Saponification value
(mg KOH/g oil)
193-205
180-205
168-181
182-193
186-198
186-194
186-195
189-195
188-194
182-194
190-191
Iodine value
≤ 48
≥ 60
94-120
105-126
136-148
80-100
104-120
124-139
118-141
78-90
94-122
Unsaponifiable matter (g/kg)
≤ 9
≤ 13
≤ 20
≤ 20
≤ 15
≤ 10
≤ 20
≤ 15
≤ 15
≤ 15
<15
2 Fractionated product from palm oil.
Table 3: Levels of desmethylsterols in crude vegetable oils from authentic samples1 as a percentage of total sterols (see Appendix 1 of the Standard)
Arachis oil
Babassu oil
Coconut oil
Cottonseed oil
Grapeseed oil
Maize oil
Palm oil
Palm olein
Palm kerneloil
Palm stearin
Cholesterol
ND-3.8
1.2-1.7
ND-3.0
0.7-2.3
ND-0.5
0.2-0.6
2.6-6.7
2.6-7.0
0.6-3.7
2.5-5.0
Brassicasterol
ND-0.2
ND-0.3
ND-0.3
0.1- 0.3
ND-0.2
ND-0.2
ND
ND
ND-0.8
ND
Campesterol
12.0-19.8
17.7-18.7
6.0-11.2
6.4-14.5
7.5-14.0
16.0-24.1
18.7-27.5
12.5-39.0
8.4-12.7
15.0-26.0
Stigmasterol
5.4-13.2
8.7-9.2
11.4-15.6
2.1-6.8
7.5-12.0
4.3-8.0
8.5-13.9
7.0-18.9
12.0-16.6
9.0-15.0
Beta-sitosterol
47.4-69.0
48.2-53.9
32.6-50.7
76.0-87.1
64.0-70.0
54.8-66.6
50.2-62.1
45.0-71.0
62.6-73.1
50.0-60.0
Delta-5-avenasterol
5.0-18.8
16.9-20.4
20.0-40.7
1.8-7.3
1.0-3.5
1.5-8.2
ND-2.8
ND-3.0
1.4-9.0
ND-3.0
Delta-7-stigmastenol
ND-5.1
ND
ND-3.0
ND-1.4
0.5-3.5
0.2-4.2
0.2-2.4
ND-3.0
ND-2.1
ND-3.0
Delta-7-avenasterol
ND-5.5
0.4-1.0
ND-3.0
0.8-3.3
0.5-1.5
0.3-2.7
ND-5.1
ND-6.0
ND-1.4
ND-3.0
Others
ND-1.4
ND
ND-3.6
ND-1.5
ND-5.1
ND-2.4
ND
ND-10.4
ND-2.7
ND-5.0
Total sterols (mg/kg)
900-2900
500-800
400-1200
2700-6400
2000-70*00
7000-22100
300-700
270-800
700-1400
250-500
Palm superolein
Rapeseed oil (low erucic acid)
Safflowerseed oil
Safflowerseed oil (high oleic acid)
Sesameseed oil
Soyabean oil
Sunflowerseed oil
Sunflowerseed oil (high oleic acid)
Sunflowerseed oil (mid-oleic acid)
Cholesterol
2.0-3.5
ND-1.3
ND-0.7
ND-0.5
0.1-0.5
0.2-1.4
ND-0.7
ND-0.5
0.1-0.2
Brassicasterol
ND
5.0-13.0
ND-0.4
ND-2.2
0.1-0.2
ND-0.3
ND-0.2
ND-0.3
ND-0.1
Campesterol
22.0-26.0
24.7-38.6
9.2-13.3
8.9-19.9
10.1-20.0
15.8-24.2
6.5-13.0
5.0-13.0
9.1-9.6
Stigmasterol
18.2-20.0
0.2-1.0
4.5-9.6
2.9-8.9
3.4-12.0
14.9-19.1
6.0-13.0
4.5-13.0
9.0-9.3
Beta-sitosterol
55.0-70.0
45.1-57.9
40.2-50.6
40.1-66.9
57.7-61.9
47.0-60
50-70
42.0-70
56-58
Delta-5-avenasterol
0-1.0
2.5-6.6
0.8-4.8
0.2-8.9
6.2-7.8
1.5-3.7
ND-6.9
1.5- 6.9
4.8-5.3
Delta-7-stigmastenol
0-0.3
ND-1.3
13.7-24.6
3.4-16.4
0.5-7.6
1.4-5.2
6.5-24.0
6.5-24.0
7.7-7.9
Delta-7-avenasterol
0-0.3
ND-0.8
2.2-6.3
ND-8.3
1.2-5.6
1.0-4.6
3.0-7.5
ND-9.0
4.3-4.4
Others
0-2.0
ND-4.2
0.5-6.4
4.4-11.9
0.7-9.2
ND-1.8
ND-5.3
3.5-9.5
5.4-5.8
Total sterols (mg/kg)
100
4500-11300
2100-4600
2000-4100
4500-19000
1800-4500
2400-5000
1700-5200
ND - Non-detectable, defined as ≤ 0.05%
1 Data taken from species as listed in Section 2.
2 Fractionated product from palm oil.
Table 4: Levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols in crude vegetable oils from authentic samples (mg/kg) (see Appendix 1 of the Standard)
Arachis oil
Babassu oil
Coconut oil
Cottonseed oil
Grapeseed oil
Maize oil
Palm oil
Palm olein
Palm kernel oil
Palm stearin
Alpha-tocopherol
49-373
ND
ND-17
136-674
16-38
23-573
4-193
30-280
ND-44
ND-100
Beta-tocopherol
ND-41
ND
ND-11
ND-29
ND-89
ND-356
ND-234
ND-250
ND-248
ND-50
Gamma-tocopherol
88-389
ND
ND-14
138-746
ND-73
268-2468
ND-526
ND-100
ND-257
ND-50
Delta-tocopherol
ND-22
ND
ND
ND-21
ND-4
23-75
ND-123
ND-100
ND
ND-50
Alpha-tocotrienol
ND
25-46
ND-44
ND
18-107
ND-239
4-336
50-500
ND
20-150
Gamma-tocotrienol
ND
32-80
ND-1
ND
115-205
ND-450
14-710
20-700
ND-60
10-500
Delta-tocotrienol
ND
9-10
ND
ND
ND-3.2
ND-20
ND-377
40-120
ND
5-150
Total (mg/kg)
170-1300
60-130
ND-50
380-1200
240-410
330-3720
150-1500
300-1800
ND-260
100-700
Palmsuperolein
Rapeseed oil
(low erucic acid)
Safflowerseed oil
Safflowerseed oil
(high oleic acid)
Sesameseed oil
Soyabean oil
Sunflowerseed oil
Sunflowerseed oil
(high oleic acid)
Sunflowerseed oil (mid-oleic acid)
Alpha-tocopherol
130-240
100-386
234-660
234-660
ND-3.3
9-352
403-935
400-1090
488-668
Beta-tocopherol
ND-40
ND-140
ND-17
ND-13
ND
ND-36
ND-45
10-35
19-52
Gamma-tocopherol
ND-40
189-753
ND-12
ND-44
521-983
89-2307
ND-34
3-30
2.3-19.0
Delta-tocopherol
ND-30
ND-22
ND
ND-6
4-21
154-932
ND-7.0
ND-17
ND-1.6
Alpha-tocotrienol
170-300
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND-69
ND
ND
ND
Gamma-tocotrienol
230-420
ND
ND-12
ND-10
ND-20
ND-103
ND
ND
ND
Delta-tocotrienol
60-120
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Total (mg/kg)
400-1400
430-2680
240-670
250-700
330-1010
600-3370
440-1520
450-1120
509-741
ND - Non-detectable.
Note: Maize oil also contains ND-52 mg/kg beta tocotrienol.
1 Data taken from species as listed in Section 2.
2 Fractionated product from palm oil.


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